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and Contract Employees on the Management of Regular Employees
The number of non-regular employees (hiseikishain), which include temporary employees, has been increasing and now exceeds onethird of all workers in Japan. Approximately 80% of non-regular employees are those who have part-time jobs or work under contract at companies and other types of organizations “( part-time and contract employees”). Various factors explain the increase in the number of non-regular employees, including companies’efforts to reduce their payroll and changes in workers’attitudes to their jobs. Along with the increase in the employment of non-regular employees, various relevant issues have become apparent.
One such issue is the problem of differences in the treatment of regular employees (seishain) and non-regular employees. However, with the amendment to the Part-Time Employment Act taking effect in April 2008, a movement toward correcting such differences has emerged. Responding to this amendment to the law as well as trying to retain capable workers, the attitude of companies to part-time and contract employees has changed, and some companies have started to promote them to regular employees. Moreover, in the process of tax reforms, various deductions for income tax are being reexamined. Although it was decided that abolishment of the spouse deduction would not be implemented in the next fiscal year, its implementation is possible in the future. If the spouse deduction is abolished, it will significantly affect the way in which part-timers work because they have controlled their annual work hours to use the deduction.
In this context, this article focuses on future conditions for part-time and contract employees (i.e., non-regular employees minus temporary employees), especially, part-timers whose work hours are shorter than those of regular employees, and examines the direction of human resource management regarding part-time and contract employees and its effect on the management of regular employees.