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This case study focuses on the London 2012 Olympic Games and their cultural programs, which had larger scale and greater variety than the cultural programs seen in any previous Olympic Games up to that point. I first review the history of Olympic cultural programs and divide the past into five periods. After reviewing the concept of legacy, which has been emphasized by the International Olympic Committee since 2003, I summarize the descriptions of the legacy of the cultural programs held in conjunction with the London Olympic Games. Using a diagram to illustrate and overview these London Olympic cultural programs, I then explain the major programs and analyze data such as the number of participants and project costs. I also examine major stakeholders in the cultural programs and show the overall relationships among the stakeholders using a schematic diagram. Instead of London, I then pay attention to regional cities and conduct a case study of cultural programs held in Leeds (Leeds Canvas) and Liverpool and review the legacy of the cultural programs held in conjunction with the London Olympic Games. Lastly, on the basis of the above investigations, I propose that regional arts councils are necessary if cultural programs are to be held across Japan in conjunction with the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games. Also, with regard to Olympic cultural programs, I note the importance of conducting a variety of pilot experiments and disseminating the message that engaging in culture can be a professional pursuit.