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Creating Unique Safety Standards Based on the EU's Flexible Systems
Though hard to believe, the hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) implementation rate in Japan is 30 percent, as opposed to 100 percent in France, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. HACCP has been mandatory throughout the EU since the bovine spongiform encephalopathy crisis in 2000. The United States enacted the Food Safety Modernization Act in 2011 and has been strongly promoting mandatory implementation of HACCP. Japan has not yet enacted nationwide adoption of HACCP, but is finally moving toward its mandatory implementation as a trump card for increasing exports of agricultural, forest, fishery, and food products. To be competitive against European countries and the United States, it will be critical for Japan to not only make HACCP mandatory, but also incorporate unique mechanisms into the country’s HACCP system. This paper explores a Japanese-style HACCP system based on examples from EU countries, which are advanced in terms of HACCP, with particular attention given to the flexibility of European systems.